452 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. by his subjects in favour of Mohamed Yusuf, a Sadozai, who in order to avenge the death of Kamran Mirza put his rival to death. Mohamed Yusuf, who had long resided in exile at Meshed, was rightly regarded as a Persian nominee. Dost Mohamed, who by the recent death of Kuhendil Khan had gained Kandahar, was most anxious for Great Britain to take action in defence of her interests at Herat, and when this step was deprecated as premature he proposed himself to attack the city with an Afghan army. The Occupation of Herat by Persia, 1856.—Meanwhile, as already stated, Persia was recklessly bent on breaking the treaty of 1853, and in the spring of 1856 a Persian army marched on Herat, where it was welcomed by Mohamed Yusuf. Shortly afterwards there was a rising against the overbearing Persians, and Mohamed Yusuf hoisted the British flag and appealed for aid to Dost Mohamed. As the result of a second rising, however, Mohamed Yusuf was seized and sent a prisoner to the Persian camp. His deputy, Isa Khan, held the city for some months, but in October, 1856, the science of a French engineer, M. Buhler, brought about its fall, and Persian possession of Herat was at last made good. The Second British Treaty with Dost Mohamed, 1857. —Action was then taken by Great Britain against Persia in two ways, one of which was indirect; for by a second treaty, concluded in January, I857,1 Dost Mohamed was granted a subsidy of a lac of rupees per month during the con- tinuation of the war, on condition that the money was spent on his army. Muskets also were supplied to him in large numbers. Dost Mohamed, however, made no attack on Herat, and exercised little or no influence on the course of the war, which lasted for only a short period. British Operations against Persia, 1856-1857,—The direct action was a declaration of war,most reluctantly made, by Great Britain against Persia. Few wars have resembled that which followed. The usual question is how to injure an enemy most effectively, but on this occasion the efforts 1 The text is given in Rawliason's work, App. III.